Site for researching all meanings of Hebrew Bible. Donate

Grammar:Tutorial/Binyanim of verbs

From Without Vowels project
Jump to: navigation, search
Grammar:Tutorial
Some words Binyanim of verbs Misc

Verbs considered above were all of the binyan (the mood of meaning and declension) called Qal (from the word כל “empty”) or PAAL.

There are also the following binyanim (“binyanim” is the plural of “binyan”):

  • NIPAL
  • PIEL
  • PUAL
  • HIPIL
  • HOPAL
  • HITPAEL

There are also some rare binyanim.

Not every verb is met in every binyamin.

The names of binyamin are the forms the verb פעל would take in these binyamin.

NIPAL

NIPAL has the following meanings:

  • reflexive;
  • passive;
  • passive with potentiality;
  • (seldom) a change in a state of a subject;
  • (seldom) mutual act.

In perfect to NIPAL verbs is added the prefix נ.

Imperfect is the same as imperfect of PAAL.

In imperative and infinitive is added the prefix ה.

The participle of NIPAL is formed adding the prefix נ to the root. The singular feminine participle usually has ה at the end but sometimes ת instead.

Absolute infinitive of NIPAL is formed adding the prefix נ and the letter ו between the second and the third letter of the root and either נ or ה as a prefix.

In perfect of 1-נ verbs the נ of the prefix and of the root are merged (remains only one נ).

In all forms of NIPAL the first י in a root is replaced with ו.

In NIPAL of empty verbs (including participles) the second letter is not omitted.

Double verbs in NIPAL have one instead of two (idenitical) letters in verbs (including participles).

3-weak verbs are declined similar to 3-weak verbs in PAAL.

PIEL and PUAL

These verbs are often formed from an adjective (meaning the action which makes this adjective to come true) or from nouns.

PIEL derived from PAAL usually mean cause to make some action. For example למד in PIEL means “to teach” (while למד in PAAL means “to learn”).

Sometimes PIEL means an action more intense than the corresponding PAAL.

The PIEL verbs (not including participles) are the same in form as PAAL verbs.

Infinitive consists of three letters of the root. In absolute infinitive it is added ו between the second and the third letter of the root, but instead of absolute infinitive it is often used simply infinitive.

PIEL participle is formed adding the prefix מ to the root. The singular feminine participle often has the suffix ה instead of ת:

singular plural
masculine (none) ים
feminine ה ות

Double verbs are declined in PIEL like regular verbs.

3-weak verbs are declined similar to 3-weak verbs in PAAL both in perfect and imperfect.

1-י and 1-נ are declined in PIEL like regular verbs.

PUAL is the passive of PIEL. PUAL has the same form as PIEL.

POAL seems to have the same participle and perfect as PIEL, but with added wav between the 1st and the 2nd letters of the word.

TODO: What are participles of empty verbs in PIEL? See http://linguistics.stackexchange.com/a/17709/13300

HIPIL

Most often HIPIL means causative verbs. If the corresponding PAAL is transitive, then the verb in HIPIL may be “twice transitive” (have two direct objects, the object of cause of an action and the object of an action itself).

A special case of causative: To allow to make some action.

HIPIL verbs derived from adjectives means the action which makes the subject or object to be of this adjective.

There are other meanings of HIPIL.

In perfect and imperative, infinitive, absolute infinitive also the prefix ה is added.

Participle is formed adding to the root a prefix מ and י between the second and the third letters of the root.

Infinitive is formed adding to the root a prefix ה and י between the second and the third letters of the root.

In verbs 1-נ that נ is omitted in perfect, imperfect, imperative, and participle.

Patterns of declension (note י between the second and the third letters of the root in some forms):

Perfect:

person gender singular plural
3rd masculine השמיד השמידו
feminine השמידה
2nd masculine השמידת השמדתם
feminine השמדתן
1st השמידתי השמדנו

Imperfect:

person gender singular plural
3rd masculine ישמיד ישמידו
feminine תשמיד תשמדנה
2nd masculine תשמיד תשמידו
feminine תשמידי תשמדנה
1st אשמיד נשמיד

In 1-נ the first נ is omitted in all HIPIL verb forms (including participles).

In most 1-י verbs the י is replaced with ו in HIPIL verbs (including participles).

3-weak verbs and participles have the same declension specifics as in PAAL.

In empty verbs (including participles) of the binyan HIPIL the second letter of the root is skipped.

Often in perfect of HIPIL emtpy verbs or double verbs before a suffix after the root of the verb is inserted the letter ו (not in 3rd person singular).

Double HIPIL verbs (including participles) lose one of the identical letters.

HOPAL

HOPAL is a passive of HIPIL.

Perfect of HOPAL is formed adding a prefix ה to the root. Imperfect is the same of a PAAL. A participle is formed adding a prefix מ to the root.

In 1-נ the first נ is omitted in all HOPAL verb forms (including participles).

In most 1-י verbs the י is replaced with ו in HOPAL verbs (including participles).

3-weak verbs and participles have the same declension specifics as in PAAL.

In empty verbs (including participles) and double verbs (including participles) of the binyan HOPAL the second letter of the root is skipped and before the root is added the letter ו.

HITPAEL

In HITPAEL it is added a prefix הת in perfect, imperative, infinitive to the root.

In imperfect it is added ת between the prefix of imperfect and the root.

In participle it is added a prefix מת.

If a root starts with ס, ז, ש, צ, then this letter exchanges in place with the letter ת of the prefix. Also with ז the ת of the ת in the prefix is replaced with ד; with צ the ת in the prefix is replaced with ט.

If the root starts with ת, ד or ט, then the ת in prefix is omitted.

Double verbs in HITPAEL are declined like regular ones.

In 1-י that י is sometimes replaced with ו in HITPAEL.

HITPAEL may mean:

  • reflexive;
  • mutual;
  • other.

POLEL, POLAL, HITPOLEL

These are binyanim from empty verbs which are formed instead of PIEL, PUAL, and HITPAEL.

In these binyanim the last (third) letter of the root is doubled.

Other binyanim

There are also some rare binyanim in biblical Hebrew. Their declension is mostly unknown.

From Gesenius' grammar:

POEL and POAL

An aim or endeavor to perform the action, especially with hostile intent.

POAL is passive from POEL. Their declension is probably the same. Examples:

  • Perfect: קוטל
  • Imperfect: יקוטל
  • Participle: מקוטל

HITPOEL

Reflexive.

  • Perfect: התקוטל

PALEL and PULAL

PULAL is passive from PALEL. Their declension is probably the same. Examples:

  • Perfect: קטלל

HITPALEL

Perfect: התקטלל

PALAL and its passive

Used of movements repeated in quick succession.

  • Perfect: קטלטל

PILPEL

Only for empty verbs.

  • Perfect: גלגל (passive is the same)

HITPALPEL

Reflexive of PILPEL.

  • Perfect: התגלגל

TIPHEL

  • Perfect: תקטל

SAPHEL

  • Perfect: שקטל