Words יש and אין
The words יש and אין always are the first word in a sentence. They do not change by number, gender, and person.
יש means “there is” or “there are”; אין means “there isn't” or “there aren't”.
With the preposition ל before a subject the words יש and אין mean that the subject has (or doesn't have) something. Example: אין לאיש כסף (The man has no money).
The words יש and אין can be used with pronoun suffixes.
The word הנה
The word הנה is approximately translated “lo!” or “behold”.
It can be used with pronoun suffixes (for example “Behold I …”). See the forms with suffixes below.
Most often this word is in the beginning of a sentence.
Sometimes this word is used to introduce a hypothetical case.
Sometimes it is used הן instead of הנה.
The word עוד
The word עוד means (“yet” or “again”). This word can be used with pronoun suffixes. See below.
The pronoun suffix may mean a subject of a sentence.
בעוד means “after” (about time), “during” or “until”.
A meaning of the word הלך
The word הלך may mean gradual increase if some state or quality. (TODO: Details of the usage.)
It is a rough equivalent of the English “which”.
Example: העם אשר בארץ (the nation which is in the country, the nation living in the country).
When a noun with a preposition is used as an attribute, אשר is often inserted between the attribute and the determined noun.
The word אשר may also mean “which” connecting two sub-sentences. (But אשר isn't a subject unlike the English word which.) So after אשר it is often added a personal pronoun. (TODO: examples)
The preposition מן
The preposition מן has the same sense as the preposition מ (but is written with a space before a noun). In this form (מן) is usually used only before an article.
The word כל
The word כל without an article means “every”, “any”, or “all”. With an article it means “all of” or “entire”.
A direct object expressed by the word כל in the sense (“all”) requires the preposition את despite of absence of an article in this case.