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Preface Alphabet Nouns and gender

Hebrew texts are read from right to left (reverse to English texts).

Hebrew alphabet consists of 22 letters, five of which use different forms at the end of a word.

Here is the list of the Hebrew letters. For the letters which have a different form at the end of a word, that form (so called “sophit”) is shown to the left of the main form of the letter.

Name of the letter Letter
Aleph א
Bet ב
Gimel ג
Dalet ד
He ה
Vav ו
Zayn ז
Het ח
Tet ט
Yod י
Kaf כ ך
Lamed ל
Mem מ ם
Nun נ ן
Samekh ס
Ayin ע
Pe פ ף
Tsadi צ ץ
Qof ק
Resh ר
Shin ש
Tav ת

There are no distinction of lower case and upper case letters.

Letters ה and י are often added to words or omitted in words, dependently on the manner of a scribe.

Most words have a three-letter root. But some words have roots of a different number of letters.

We will denote words having a letter X at the place N (N=1, 2, or 3) in the root as N-X.